Valerie Maguire

 

Automated Infrastructure Management (AIM) solutions are comprised of integrated hardware and software systems that automatically detect the insertion or removal of cords, support documentation of the cabling infrastructure and connected equipment, and enable management of the infrastructure and data exchange with other systems. AIM systems contribute to operational efficiency, facilitate cabling infrastructure and connected device administration, streamline facilities, IT, intelligent building, and other management processes and systems, and support business information systems covering asset tracking and asset management. Event notifications and alerts assist with maintaining physical network security.

ANSI/TIA-5048 “Automated Infrastructure Management (AIM) Systems – Requirements, Data Exchange and Applications” was developed by the TIA TR-42.6 Infrastructure Administration Subcommittee and published in June, 2017. This Standard is an adaption of ISO/IEC 18598 “Automated Infrastructure Management (AIM) Systems – Requirements, Data Exchange and Applications”, which defines core and auxiliary functions of AIM systems, with the following addition:

  • The chosen identification scheme for the items to be documented within the AIM software shall be compliant with TIA‑606‑C

ANSI/TIA-5048 Content

  • Automated Infrastructure Management (AIM) Systems
  • AIM Solutions: Business Benefits
  • AIM Solutions: Data Exchange Framework
  • Annexes addressing Hierarchy and Containment Rules, Field Descriptions, Implementation Requirements and Recommendations, and Optional Lower Level Data Exchange Framework

ANSI/TIA-5048 Functional Elements

AIM system include the following two functional elements:

  • Hardware that automatically detects the insertion and removal of cords and
  • Software that
    • collects and stores the resulting connection information,
    • relates the connection information to cabling connectivity information,
    • relates the cabling connectivity information to information from other sources, and
    • makes the connection information accessible to either an authorized user or to other systems

Siemon MapIT® G2 Next Generation Automated Infrastructure Management hardware and Siemon EagleEyeTM Connect software is an ideal way to provide real-time tracking and reporting of network-wide physical layer activity.

 

Proper administration of the telecommunications cabling plant can reduce the labor expense of maintaining the infrastructure, extend the useful economic life of the system, and provide more effective service to users. A well-planned administration system is independent of supported applications, which may change multiple times throughout the life of the cabling plant. Administration guidelines apply to owners, end users, manufacturers, consultants, contractors, designers, installers, and others involved in the administration of the telecommunications infrastructure.

ANSI/TIA-606-C “Administration Standard for Telecommunications Infrastructure” was developed by the TIA TR-42.6 Infrastructure Administration Subcommittee and published in June, 2017. Significant changes from the previous edition include:

  • TIA-606-B-1 content replaced with a reference to TIA-5048 (adaption of ISO/IEC 18598)
  • Additional guidelines for administration of cabling supporting remote powering, including cable bundle identifiers, added
  • The preference for an ISO/IEC TR 14763-2-1 compatible format for new administration systems was removed
  • Identifier schemes for telecommunications bonding and grounding system elements changed to align with TIA-607-C as follows:
    • BCT (bonding conductor for telecommunications) changed to TBC (telecommunications bonding conductor)
    • RGB (rack grounding busbar) changed to RBB (rack bonding busbar)
    • GE (grounding equalizer) changed to BBC (backbone bonding conductor)
    • TGB (telecommunications grounding busbar) changed to SBB (secondary bonding busbar)
    • TMGB (telecommunications main grounding busbar) changed to PBB (primary bonding busbar)
  • Table summarizing variables used in identifier formats added

ANSI/TIA-606-C Content

  • Classes of Administration
  • Class 1 Administration
  • Class 2 Administration
  • Class 3 Administration
  • Class 4 Administration
  • Optional Identifiers for Infrastructure Elements
  • Color-Coding Identification
  • Permanent Labels
  • Administration Systems Using Records, Linkages and Reports
  • Automated Infrastructure Management Systems
  • Annexes addressing Identification of Patch Cords, Equipment Cords, and Direct Equipment-to-Equipment Cables, Telecommunications Grounding System Identification Example, and Graphical, Symbology, Drawing Elements of Administration, and Administration of Remote Powering

ANSI/TIA-606-C Administration Systems

An administration system for telecommunications infrastructure within buildings and between buildings may include:

  • assigning identifiers to components of the infrastructure
  • specifying elements of information that make up records for each identifier
  • specifying relationships between these records to access the information they contain
  • specifying reports presenting information on groups of records, and
  • specifying graphical and symbolic requirements

ANSI/TIA-606-C Administration Classes

Four classes of administration are specified in this Standard to accommodate the wide range of complexity present in the cabling plant.  Class 1 contains the less stringent and Class 4 contains the most stringent administration requirements.  The size and complexity of the cabling plant are the most relevant considerations in determining the minimum class of administration.

The four classes of administration are:

  • Class 1 provides for the telecommunications infrastructure administration needs of a premises that is served by a single equipment room (ER)
  • Class 2 provides for the telecommunications infrastructure administration needs of a single building or of a tenant that is served by single or multiple telecommunications spaces (e.g., an equipment room with one or more telecommunications rooms) within a single building
  • Class 3 provides for the telecommunications infrastructure administration needs of a campus, including its buildings and outside plant elements
  • Class 4 provides for the telecommunications infrastructure administration needs of a multi-campus/multi-site system

An administration system may be managed using a paper-based system, general purpose spreadsheet software, special-purpose cable management software, or Automated Infrastructure Management (AIM) systems.

ANSI/TIA-606-C Elements

This Standard specifies an administration system for the following elements of a generic telecommunications infrastructure:

  • Cabling Subsystem 1, 2, and3 pathways and cabling
  • Telecommunications bonding and grounding
  • Spaces (e.g., entrance facility, telecommunications room, equipment room), and
  • Fire-stopping

 Representative Model of Typical Telecommunications Infrastructure Elements for Administration 

Click here for archive information on ANSI/TIA-606-B.

 

This Standard specifies requirements and recommendations for 75Ω broadband coaxial cabling, cables, cords, and connecting hardware that are used to support community antenna television (CATV, commonly referred to as cable television), satellite television, and other broadband applications. Allowed deployment topologies are the star topology defined in TIA‑568.0-D, bus and star topology, and multipoint bus topology. Also included are transmission requirements, mechanical requirements, and requirements related to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) for cabling, cables and connectors, cabling installation and connector termination procedures, and field testing procedures.

ANSI/TIA-568.4-D “Broadband Coaxial Cabling and Components Standard” was developed by the TIA TR‑42.7 Copper Cabling Subcommittee and published in June, 2017. Significant changes from the previous edition include:

  • Updated references

ANSI/TIA-568.4-D Content

  • Topology
  • Cabling
  • Series 6 and Series 11 Link Performance
  • Coaxial Cable, Cords, and Connecting Hardware
  • Field Test Requirements
  • Annexes addressing Background Information for Coaxial Cabling Requirements and Multipoint Bus

ANSI/TIA-568.4-D Recognized Cables

The recognized 75 Ω coaxial cables are:

  • Series 6 dual-*, tri- or quad-shield,
  • Series 11 dual-*, tri- or quad-shield,
  • Trunk, feeder, and distribution cable (refer to ANSI/SCTE 15 for examples of these types of cables), and
  • Braided multipurpose cable (refer to ANSI/SCTE 74 for an example of this type of cable).

* Dual-shield  coaxial cable construction is commonly referred to as single tape and braid.

Click here for archive information on ANSI/TIA-568-C.4.

 

IEEE Std 802.3bv ”IEEE Standard for Ethernet Amendment 9: Physical Layer Specifications and Management Parameters for 1000 Mb/s Operation Over Plastic Optical Fiber” was developed by the IEEE P802.3bv Gigabit Ethernet Over Plastic Optical Fiber Task Force and approved by the IEEE-SA Standards Board on February 14, 2017. Unlike traditional multimode and singlemode optical fibers having glass cores, plastic optical fiber (POF) cables are constructed with 1mm diameter polymer cores. Step-index POF optical fiber performance is specified in IEC 60793-2-40 A4a.2. POF cabling systems have high mechanical flexibility and low cost over reduced operating distances and are commonly deployed in home, industrial, and automotive networks.

This amendment specifies the first Ethernet protocol operating over POF media and defines three 1000 Mb/s Ethernet physical layer (PHY) specifications:

1000BASE-RHA:  1000 Mb/s using 1000BASE-H encoding over duplex plastic optical fiber cable and red light (approximately 650 nm) wavelength transmission tailored for home network and other consumer applications

1000BASE-RHB:  1000 Mb/s using 1000BASE-H encoding over duplex plastic optical fiber cable and red light (approximately 650 nm) wavelength transmission tailored for industrial applications

1000BASE-RHC:  1000 Mb/s using 1000BASE-H encoding over duplex plastic optical fiber cable and red light (approximately 650 nm) wavelength transmission tailored for automotive applications

Goals and Objectives for 1000 Mb/s over POF operation:

  • Preserve the IEEE 802.3/Ethernet frame format utilizing the IEEE 802.3 MAC
  • Preserve minimum and maximum frame size of the current IEEE 802.3 standard
  • Support full duplex operation only
  • Support a data rate of 1000 M/bs at the MAC/PLS service interface
  • For the automotive environment:
    • Specify operation over at least 15m of POF with 4 POF connections
    • Specify operation over at least 40m of POF with no POF connections
  • For the home and industrial environment specify operation over at least 50m of POF with 1 POF connection
  • Maintain a bit error ratio (BER) better than or equal to 10-12 at the MC/PLS service interface
  • Specify optional Energy-Efficient Ethernet for 1000 Mb/s over POF

The IEEE 802.3 Gigabit Ethernet Over Plastic Optical Fiber Call-For-Interest Consensus Presentation can be found here: http://www.ieee802.org/3/GEPOFSG/public/CFI/GigPOF%20CFI%20v_1_0_small.pdf

The Project Authorization Request (PAR), approved on December 10, 2014, can be found here: http://www.ieee802.org/3/bv/P802_3bv_PAR_approved_121214.pdf

 

The extensive number and range of networkable devices available for deployment in today’s smart buildings create environments that are safer, healthier, more energy efficient, and more responsive to occupant needs and preferences than ever before. BICSI D033, “Information Communication Technology Design and Implementation Practices for Intelligent Buildings and Premises” is targeted for publication later this year and will identify best practices for integrating diverse applications and devices on the IT network. Key chapters will address media recommendations, cabling topologies, design considerations for applications supporting both data and power, device density and coverage area sizing, and pathway considerations. Supplemental information related to deploying lighting, digital signage, acoustic and intercom systems, metering and monitoring systems, and other special building applications will also be provided.

The topologies and media referenced in the draft BICSI D033 Standard are based on the horizontal and backbone cabling specifications appearing in TIA-568.0-D and ISO/IEC 11801‑1. Structured cabling supporting intelligent building applications in new installations shall be deployed in a hierarchical star topology and consist of a minimum of category 6/class E (category 6A/class EA recommended) balanced twisted-pair, laser-optimized multimode (i.e., OM3, OM4, and OM5) optical fibre, and all forms of singlemode optical fibre cabling.

The draft Standard emphasizes that a zone cabling design, which consists of horizontal cables run from the telecommunications room to a horizontal connection point or HCP (an intermediate connection point that is typically housed in an enclosure located in the ceiling space, on the wall, or below an access floor) provides a flexible infrastructure to accommodate current and future data, voice, building device, and wireless access point connections. Since spare ports are available at the HCP and individual cables only extend from the outlets at the HCP to building devices or outlets, zone cabling systems support rapid reorganization of work areas and equipment and simplify deployment of new devices and applications.

Detailed requirements for sizing and provisioning assist in the design and layout of entrance rooms, equipment rooms, telecommunications rooms, and telecommunications enclosures where cabling and equipment connections are made. Considerations for a wide range of cabling pathways (e.g., cable trays, J‑hooks and other non-contiguous pathways, conduit, raceways, ducts, poke-throughs and other in-floor systems, and access floors) aid in identifying the optimum pathway infrastructure system for various building system applications.

The key to a successful smart building deployment is the proper planning, design, and deployment of the cabling infrastructure. When published, BICSI D033 will be a valuable resource for intelligent building cabling best practices and the zone-based structured cabling architectures.

Click here to learn more about zone cabling for smart buildings. Click here to learn more about zone cabling for 60W PoE lighting systems.

 

“Specification for OSFP Octal Small Form Factor Pluggable Module” is currently under development by the OSFP MSA Group. OSFP is a “double-density” module and connector system similar to the QSFP+ system, but slightly wider and deeper to accommodate eight-lanes. The new module will be capable of 400 Gb/s transmission over 16 pairs of twinaxial conductors or optical fibers (8 x 50 Gb/s). The connector system enables modules consuming 12-15W of power to reside in a switch chassis with conventional airflow, which makes the system attractive for long range (i.e. 100 km) optical transceivers. The form factor allows 32 400 Gb/s ports per 1U  to enable 12.8 Tb/s per switch slot. OSFP to QSFP+ adapters will support backward compatibility between form factors.

An effort is being made to adopt a common management interface to be referenced in MSAs developed by among the OSFP MSA Group, QSFP-DD MSA Group, and the Consortium for On-Board Optics (COBO).

The project objectives are as follows:

  • High port density
  • High thermal capability
  • Accommodate full range of 400G optics
  • Future roadmap to 800G (2x400G-PAM4)
  • Enable 12.8 Tb/s in a 1U slot

Revision 1.0 of the OSFP MSA Specification, released on March 17, 2017, can be found here: http://osfpmsa.org/assets/pdf/OSFP_Module_Specification_Rev1.0.pdf

 

“QSFP-DD Specification for QSFP Double Density 8X Pluggable Transceiver” is currently under development by the QSFP-DD MSA Group. QSFP-DD is a “double-density” module and cage/connector system similar to the current QSFP system, but with an additional row of contacts providing for an eight-lane electrical interface. The new module will be capable of operating 25 Gb/s NRZ modulation or 50 Gb/s PAM4 modulation over 16 pairs of twinaxial conductors or optical fibers to support 200 Gb/s or 400 Gb/s aggregate bandwidth. Systems designed with QSFP‑DD connectors will be backwards compatible to support interoperability with existing QSFP modules, however, the QSFP‑DD connector will only support 200 Gb/s or 400 Gb/s aggregate speeds when mated with QSFP‑DD modules.

QSFP-DD MSA Group participants have developed an improved management interface and the MSA project may split into separate management interface and form-factor documents. It’s also possible that the OSFP MSA Group, the uQSFP MSA Group, and the Consortium for On-Board Optics (COBO) will adopt the improved QSFP-DD management interface.

The project objectives are as follows:

  • Expand the use of the QSFP form-factor
  • Specify a 2×1 integrated stacked cage and connector
  • Specify a SMT QSFP-DD connector
  • Enable 12W of power dissipation per module
  • Transmit speeds up to 50 Gb/s PAM4
  • Enable 14.4 Tb/s in a single switch slot

Revision 2.0 of the QSFP-DD MSA Specification, released on March 13, 2017, can be found here: http://www.qsfp-dd.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/QSFP-DDrev2-0-Final.pdf

Additional information on accelerating 400GbE adoption with QSFP-DD can be found here: http://www.qsfp-dd.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/QSFP-DD-whitepaper-15.pdf

 

IEEE Std 802.3bu ”IEEE Standard for Ethernet Amendment 8: Physical Layer and Management Parameters for Power over Data Lines (PoDL) of Single Balanced Twisted-Pair Ethernet” was developed by the IEEE P802.3bu 1-Pair Power over Data Lines (PoDL) Task Force and approved by the IEEE-SA Standards Board on December 7, 2016. This amendment defines methodology for the provision of power via a single twisted-pair to connected Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) with IEEE 802.3 interfaces. This application is targeted for deployment in automotive, industrial automation, transportation (aircraft and rail), and other environments that utilize 100BASE-T11000BASE-T1, or any other single pair data or non-data entity protocol.

The link segment supporting PoDL operation consists of single balanced twisted-pair cabling having a dc loop resistance of less than 6 Ω for 12 V unregulated classes or less than 6.5 Ω for 12V regulated, 24V regulated and unregulated, and 48V regulated classes. PoDL is not compatible with Ethernet applications, including  IEEE Std 802.3™ PoE (DTE Power via MDI), operating over 2- or 4‑pairs of balanced twisted-pair cable.

Class Power Requirements for PoDL Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE), Power Interface (PI), and Powered Device (PD):

PoDL Class Power Requirements Matrix for PSE, PI, and PD

Goals and Objectives for 1-Pair Power over Data Lines (PoDL) operation:

  • Specify a power distribution technique for use over a single twisted pair link segment
  • Allow for operation if data is not present
  • Support voltage and current levels for the automotive, transportation, and industrial control industries
  • Do not preclude compliance with standards used in automotive, transportation, and industrial control industries when applicable
  • Support fast-startup operation using predetermined voltage/current configurations and optional operation with run-time voltage/current configuration
  • Ensure compatibility with IEEE Std 802.3bp (e.g., EMI, channel definition, noise requirements)

The IEEE 802.3 1-Pair Power over Data Lines (PoDL) Call-For-Interest Consensus Presentation can be found here: http://www.ieee802.org/3/1PPODL/public/jul13/CFI_01_0713.pdf

The Project Authorization Request (PAR), approved on December 11, 2013, can be found here: http://www.ieee802.org/3/bu/P802d3bu_PAR.pdf

 

IEEE Std 802.3-2015 Cor1 “IEEE Standard for Ethernet Corrigendum 1: Multi-lane Timestamping” was developed by the IEEE P802.3-2015/Cor 1 (IEEE P802.3ce) Multi-lane Timestamping Task Force and approved by the IEEE-SA Standards Board on March 23, 2017.  This corrigendum clarifies timestamping reference points and defines where transmit path data delay and receive path data delay measurements are made.

Timestamping Reference Points

  • The transmit path data delay is measured from the beginning of the start-of-frame delimiter (SFD) at the generic Media Independent Interface (xMII) input to the beginning of the SFD at the Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) output
  • The receive path data delay is measured from the beginning of the start-of-frame delimiter (SFD) at the Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) input to the beginning of the SFD at the generic Media Independent Interface (xMII) output

The Project Authorization Request (PAR), approved on may 12, 2016 can be found here: http://www.ieee802.org/3/ce/P802.3-2015-Cor_1_PAR.pdf

 

A wide range of safety extra low voltage (SELV) limited power source (LPS) applications may be supported using remote power deployed over balanced twisted-pair cabling.  Examples of these types of applications include LAN devices supported by IEEE Std 802.3™ PoE (DTE Power via MDI), wireless access points, TIA-862-B building automation systems, PoE lighting, and security devices such as remote cameras, IP telephones, and multimedia devices.

TSB-184-A “Guidelines for Supporting Power Delivery Over Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling” was developed by the TIA TR-42.7 Copper Cabling Subcommittee and published in March, 2017. This Telecommunications Systems Bulletin  provides guidelines to enable the support of a wide range of safety extra low voltage (SELV) limited power source (LPS) applications using remote power supplied over balanced twisted-pair cabling. This TSB also describes methods to help manage temperature rise within cable bundles due to dissipation of power.

Significant changes from the previous edition include:

  • Maximum applicable current has been increased to up to 1000 mA per pair
  • Temperature rise models have been refined to include additional cable properties and installation conditions
  • Temperature rise tables include temperature rise in open air and sealed conduit
  • Bundling recommendations and installation recommendations have been added
  • Measurement procedures to develop temperature rise models have been refined and included in the document
  • Additional specifications for pair-to-pair dc resistance unbalance have been added

TSB-184-A Content

  • Configuration, Structure, and Topology
  • Cabling Selection and Performance
  • Installation Guidelines
  • DC Resistance
  • Remote Powering Configurations and Related Transmission Performance
  • Annexes addressing Cabling Types and Installation Guidelines for DC Powering, Models, and Measurement Methods

Recommended Cabling

  • Category 6A or higher performing 4-pair balanced twisted-pair cabling is recommended for new installations delivering remote power
  • Thermal dissipation can be improved by selecting cables with:
    • Improved thermal conductivity
    • Improved heat transfer coefficient between cable materials
    • Improved heat transfer coefficient between cable jacket and air
    • Metallic elements (e.g. shield, screen)
    • A larger diameter
  • Connecting hardware having the required performance for mating and un-mating under the relevant levels of electrical power and load (e.g. compliant to the test schedule described in IEC 60512-99-002 for engaging and separating connectors under electrical load) should be chosen

Bundling Recommendations

  • Cables should be left unbundled to allow for improved heat dissipation
  • A way to limit the temperature rise due to conditions such as installation factors, possible high ambient temperature, the use of 26 AWG cords, and higher currents up to 1000 mA per pair with all four pairs energized, is to limit the number of cables per bundle to 24 in typical pathway installation conditions
  • If bundling is necessary, it is recommended to separate large bundles into smaller bundles

Maximum Cable Bundle Size for 15 °C Temperature Rise at 20 °C Ambient

Click here for archive information on TSB-184.
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